STUDIES AVAILABLE OF TURMERIC
Sources :- http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov
1. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2010 Oct 5;56 Suppl:OL1400-9.
Effect of a novel Omegacoeur®/Doluperine® nutritional combination on human embryonic kidney cell viability.
Sottejeau Y, Patel AM, Gerber G, Pierre SV, Maixent JM.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of
Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA.
Holistica Laboratories (Eguilles, France) developed the nutritional supplements Omegacoeur® and Doluperine® based on two of the most ancient and unique dietary health traditions. Omegacoeur® is formulated to supply key active components of Mediterranean diet (omega 3,6,9 fatty acids, garlic, and basil) and the formulation of Doluperine® was based on the Ayurvedic tradition (curcuma, pepper, ginger extracts). Interestingly, recent studies suggest that an combination of the ingredients supplied by these two supplements could provide additional and previously unanticipated benefit through synergistic actions of some of their key components. However, the effect of such combination on human cell viability has not been investigated. In this present article, a review of the various effects of the individual compounds of the new combination and the reported active doses, and the result of a study of an combination of Omegacoeur® / Dolupérine® on Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK 293) cells. Incremental doses of 4 Omegacoeur® / Dolupérine® combinations prepared so that the molar ratio DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) in Omegacoeur® / curcumin in Dolupérine® was kept constant, at 2.5 DHA / 1 curcumin, were added to the culture media. After 24h of incubation, cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion method. The data suggest that the combination of Omegacoeur® with Dolupérine® does not affect HEK 293 cells viability in the range of doses that have demonstrated beneficial effects in earlier studies.
PMID: 21062574 [PubMed - in process]
2. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011. pii: 515647. Epub 2010 Sep 23.
Evaluation of traditional Indian antidiabetic medicinal plants for human pancreatic amylase inhibitory effect in vitro.
Ponnusamy S, Ravindran R, Zinjarde S, Bhargava S, Ravi Kumar A.
Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India.
Pancreatic a-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for a-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic a-amylase. Analysis
of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC(50) values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125?µgmL(-1)), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1?µgmL(-1)), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0?µgmL(-1)) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16?µgmL(-1)). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49?µgmL(-1)), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127?µgmL(-1)), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4?µgmL(-1)) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511?µgmL(-1)). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds.
PMID: 20953430 [PubMed - in process]
3. Phytother Res. 2010 Aug 23. [Epub ahead of print]
An aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes stimulates insulin release and mimics insulin action on tissues involved in glucose
homeostasis in vitro.
Mohankumar S, McFarlane JR.
Centre for Bioactive Discovery, School of Science and Technology, University of
New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.
Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used widely as a spice, particularly in Asian countries. It is also used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as an
antiinflammatory and antimicrobial agent and for numerous other curative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an aqueous
extract of Curcuma longa (AEC) on tissues involved in glucose homeostasis. The extract was prepared by soaking 100 g of ground turmeric in 1 L of water, which was filtered and stored at -20 degrees C prior to use. Pancreas and muscle tissues of adult mice were cultured in DMEM with 5 or 12 mmol/L glucose and varying doses of extract. The AEC stimulated insulin secretion from mouse pancreatic tissues under both basal and hyperglycaemic conditions, although the maximum effect was only 68% of that of tolbutamide. The AEC induced stepwise stimulation of glucose uptake from abdominal muscle tissues in the presence and absence of insulin, and the combination of AEC and insulin significantly potentiated the glucose uptake into abdominal muscle tissue. However, this effect was attenuated by wortmannin, suggesting that AEC possibly acts via the insulin-mediated glucose uptake pathway. In summary, water soluble compounds of turmeric exhibit insulin releasing and mimicking actions within in vitro tissue culture conditions. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 20734343 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
4. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2010 Feb;20(2):59-68.
Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel anti-obesity formulation LI85008F in animals.
Krishnaraju AV, Sundararaju D, Srinivas P, Rao CV, Sengupta K, Trimurtulu G.
Laila Impex R&D Centre, Unit-I, Phase-III, Jawahar Autonagar, Vijayawada 520007, India.
LI85008F is a novel synergistic composition of Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi, and Curcuma longa. These herbs are well recognized and widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for treating a variety of diseases and are also have been used for culinary purposes for thousands of years. LI85008F inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and potentiates lipid breakdown in mature adipocytes. In diet-induced obese rats, LI85008F significantly reduced weight gain and improved serum adiponectin levels. These findings motivated the authors to determine the broad-spectrum safety of LI85008F. Acute oral toxicity, acute dermal toxicity, primary skin irritation, primary eye irritation, and dose-dependent 28-day sub-acute toxicity studies were conducted. The acute oral LD50 of LI85008F was greater than 5000 mg/kg in female SD rats and no changes in body weight or adverse effects were observed following necropsy. Acute dermal LD50 of LI85008F was greater than 2000 mg/kg. LI85008F was classified as non-irritating to skin in a primary dermal irritation study conducted using New Zealand Albino rabbits. LI85008F caused minimal irritation to eyes in a primary eye irritation test
conducted on New Zealand Albino rabbits. A dose-dependent 28-day sub-acute toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in selected organ weights. Evaluations on hematology, clinical chemistry, and histopathology did not show any significant adverse changes. The NOAEL of LI85008F was found to be greater than 2500 mg/kg body weight. These results demonstrate the broad spectrum safety of LI85008F in animal models.
PMID: 20158386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
5. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 24;128(2):549-53. Epub 2010 Jan 18.
Curcumin alleviates ethanol-induced hepatocytes oxidative damage involving heme oxygenase-1 induction.
Bao W, Li K, Rong S, Yao P, Hao L, Ying C, Zhang X, Nussler A, Liu L.
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, PR China.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Curcumin is the main bioactive constituent derived from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.), which has been used traditionally as hepatoprotective agents in ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potential protective effect of curcumin pretreatment against ethanol-induced hepatocytes oxidative damage, with emphasis on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat primary hepatocytes were isolated and treated with ethanol (100mM) and diverse doses of curcumin (0-50 microM), which was pretreated at various time points (0-5h) before ethanol administration. Hepatic enzyme releases in the culture medium and redox status including HO-1 enzyme activitywere detected.
RESULTS: Ethanol exposure resulted in a sustained malondialdehyde (MDA) elevation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and evident release of cellular lactate
dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), which was significantly ameliorated by curcumin pretreatment. In addition, dose- and time-dependent induction of HO-1 was involved in such hepatoprotective effects by curcumin.
CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin exerts hepatoprotective properties against ethanol involving HO-1 induction, which provide new insights into the pharmacological targets of curcumin in the prevention of alcoholic liver disease.
PMID: 20080166 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010 Mar;336(1-2):85-95. Epub 2009 Oct 14.
Multifocal signal modulation therapy of cancer: ancient weapon, modern targets.
Das T, Sa G, Saha B, Das K.
Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12 CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata,
700054, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Although safe in most cases, ancient treatments are ignored because neither their active components nor their molecular targets are well defined. This is not the case, however, with curcumin, a yellow-pigment substance and component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), which was identified more than a century ago. Recently, extensive research has addressed the chemotherapeutic potential of this relatively nontoxic-plant-derived polyphenol. Because most cancers are caused by deregulation of as many as 500 different genes, agents that target multiple gene products are needed for prevention and treatment of cancer. In this regard, curcumin has been reported to have immense potentiality for being used in cancer chemotherapy because of its control over the machineries of cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The mechanisms implicated are diverse and appear to involve a combination of cell signaling pathways at multiple levels. This review seeks to summarize the unique multifocal signal modulatory properties of the "ancient weapon," curcumin, which may be exploited for successful clinical cancer prevention.
PMID: 19826768 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2009 Sep;19(6-7):447-60.
Safety and toxicological evaluation of demethylatedcurcuminoids; a novel standardized curcumin product.
Krishnaraju AV, Sundararaju D, Sengupta K, Venkateswarlu S, Trimurtulu G.
Laila Impex R&D Centre, Unit-I, Phase-III, Vijayawada 520007, India.
Turmeric is a well recognized and highly recommended herb in ayurvedic systems of medicine and it has also been used for culinary purposes for thousands of years. Bis-O-demethylatedcurcumin (BDMC) was found to be more efficacious than curcumin and the increased potentcy was attributed to a higher number of phenolic groups in BDMC. A novel demethylatedcurcuminoid composition (DC) comprising minimum 95% of total demethylatedcurcuminoids (67.8% bisdemethylcurcumin, 20.7% demethylmonodemethoxycurcumin, 5.86% bisdemethoxycurcumin, 2.58%
demethylcurcumin) was prepared (PCT/IN05/00337, dated October 13, 2005) starting from Curcuma longa extract containing 95% total curcuminoids (C95). DC exhibited superior neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory efficacy compared to C95 in a GeneChip study. Based on these interesting findings, this study sought to determine the broad-spectrum safety of DC. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary skin and eye irritation, and dose-dependent 90 day sub-chronic toxicity studies were conducted. The acute oral LD50 of DC was found to be > 5000 mg/kg in female SD rats. No changes in body weight or adverse effects were observed following necropsy. Acute dermal LD50 of DC was found to be > 2000 mg/kg. Based on the data from primary skin irritation test conducted on New Zealand Albino rabbits, DC was classified as minimally irritating. Similarly, primary eye irritation test was
conducted with DC on rabbits and based on the test outcome DC was classified as mildly irritating to the eye. A dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in selected organ weights and as percentages of body and brain weights. DC supplementation did not cause changes in hepatic DNA fragmentation. Hematology, clinical chemistry, and histopathological evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the broad spectrum safety of DC.
PMID: 19778247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 Jul;47(7):564-70.
Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Dihar, a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Patel SS, Shah RS, Goyal RK.
Department of Pharmacology, L.M. College of Pharmacy, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009, India.
Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of Dihar, a polyherbal formulation
containing drugs from eight different herbs viz., Syzygium cumini, Momordica charantia, Emblica officinalis, Gymnema sylvestre, Enicostemma littorale,
Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia and Curcuma longa in streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg iv single dose) induced type 1 diabetic rats. STZ produced a significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, creatinine, and urea levels in
diabetic rat. Treatment with Dihar (100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks produced decrease in STZ induced serum glucose and lipids levels and increased insulin levels as compared to control. Dihar produced significant decrease in serum creatinine and urea levels in diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels and increase in thiobarbituiric acid reactive species levels in the liver of STZ-induced diabetic
rats. Administration of Dihar to diabetic rats significantly reduced the levels of lipid paroxidation and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The
results suggest Dihar to be beneficial for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
PMID: 19761040 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
9. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Jun;14(2):141-53.
Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research.
Thorne Research, Inc. email@example.com
Altern Med Rev. 2009 Sep;14(3):277.
Curcuma longa (turmeric) has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. Turmeric constituents include the three curcuminoids: curcumin (diferuloylmethane; the primary constituent and the one responsible for its vibrant yellow color), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as volatile oils (tumerone, atlantone, and zingiberone), sugars, proteins, and resins. While numerous pharmacological
activities, including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, have been attributed to curcumin, this article focuses on curcumin's anti-inflammatory
properties and its use for inflammatory conditions. Curcumin's effect on cancer (from an anti-inflammatory perspective) will also be discussed; however, an
exhaustive review of its many anticancer mechanisms is outside the scope of this article. Research has shown curcumin to be a highly pleiotropic molecule capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation. Based on early cell culture and animal research, clinical trials indicate curcumin may have potential as a therapeutic agent in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, arthritis, and chronic anterior uveitis, as well as certain types of cancer. Because of curcumin's rapid plasma clearance and conjugation, its therapeutic usefulness has been somewhat limited, leading researchers to investigate the benefits of complexing curcumin with other substances to increase systemic bioavailability. Numerous in-progress clinical trials should provide an even deeper understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic potential of curcumin.
PMID: 19594223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
10. Phytomedicine. 2009 Dec;16(12):1137-43. Epub 2009 Jul 4.
Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice.
Sumiyoshi M, Kimura Y.
Division of Functional Histology, Department of Functional Biomedicine, Graduate
School of Medicine, Ehime University, Toon City, Ehime 791-0295, Japan.
Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberacease) is widely used as a dietary pigment and spice, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds and hepatic disorders in Ayurvedic, Unani and Chinese medicine. Although the topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to improve skin trouble, there is no evidence to support this effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether turmeric prevents chronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin damage. We examined the effects of a turmeric extract on skin damage including changes in skin thickness and elasticity, pigmentation and wrinkling caused by long-term, low-dose ultraviolet B irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The extract (at 300 or 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) prevented an increase in skin thickness and a reduction in skin elasticity induced by chronic UVB exposure. It also prevented the formation of wrinkles and melanin (at 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels and in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Prevention of UVB-induced skin aging by turmeric may be due to the inhibition of increases in MMP-2 expression caused by chronic irradiation.
PMID: 19577913 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
11. Indian J Dent Res. 2009 Jan-Mar;20(1):107-9.
Uses of turmeric in dentistry: an update.
Division of Orthodontics and General Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, 4GF Jodhpur Colony, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Turmeric has been used for thousands of years as a dye, a flavoring, and a medicinal herb. In India, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach
and liver ailments, as well as topically to heal sores. Ancient Indian medicine has touted turmeric as an herb with the ability to provide glow and luster to the skin as well as vigor and vitality to the entire body. Since turmeric has antimicrobial, antioxidant, astringent, and other useful properties, it is quite
useful in Dentistry also. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of turmeric in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.
PMID: 19336870 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
12. J AOAC Int. 2008 Sep-Oct;91(5):1162-8.
Standardization of the ayurvedic formulation Haridra Khanda using high-performance thin-layer chromatography-densitometry.
Rout KK, Parida S, Mishra SK.
Utkal University, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Division, University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vani Vihar,
Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India.
The present study aimed to standardize the Ayurvedic preparation Haridra Khanda containing Curcuma longa as a major ingredient. Various physicochemical parameters such as alcohol-soluble extractive, water-soluble extractive, total ash, and acid-insoluble ash were determined according to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Microscopic evaluation of the formulation revealed the presence of various diagnostic cell structures of C. longa. Trace metal analysis indicated the absence of toxic metals such as As, Cd, Hg, and Pb. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) fingerprint patterns at multiple wavelengths (254, 366, and 430 nm) identified the number of components present at each wavelength. The bioactive markers curcumin (C1), demethoxycurcumin (C2), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (C3) were quantified by using a simple, rapid, and efficient HPTLC method using plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 stationary phase. The instrumental precision [coefficient of variation (CV)] was 0.51, 0.64, and 0.79% and the repeatability of the method (CV) was 0.89, 1.11, and 0.95%, respectively, for C1 to C3. Limits of detection and quantitation for compounds C1 to C3 were 20, 20, and 15 ng and 50, 40, and 50 ng, respectively. Response was a linear function in the ranges of 50-350, 40-240, and
50-300 ng with correlation coefficient (r) = 0.9998, 0.9995, and 0.9992, respectively, for C1 to C3. The mean recovery values of 99.63 (C1), 98.65 (C2), and 98.97% (C3) indicated the excellent accuracy of the method. It is shown that HPTLC can be applied successfully for the marker evaluation of the formulation containing C. longa.
PMID: 18980135 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
13. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:265-8.
Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.
National Institute of Nutrition , Taranaka, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties.
Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional
foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.
PMID: 18296352 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
14. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2008 Jun 18;5(4):409-18.
Anti-tumor activity of four Ayurvedic herbs in Dalton lymphoma ascites bearing mice and their short-term in vitro cytotoxicity on DLA-cell-line.
Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Parabia MH.
Bapalal Vaidya Botanical Research Centre, Dept. of Biosciences, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat-395007, India.
The anti-tumor activity and chemopreventive potential of four Ayurvedic herbs viz. Curcuma longa L., Ocimum sanctum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild) Miers ex Hook.f & Thomas and Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. were evaluated using Dalton Lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumor model in Swiss Albino mice. The outcome was assessed using survival time, peritoneal ascitic fluid (Tumor volume) and hematological indices as parameters. Animals were divided into five groups (n = 6) viz. one DLA control and four Herb + DLA treated groups. All the four herb + DLA groups were pre-treated with respective herbs for 7 days and hematological indices were measured for entire five groups. On day-8 animals were inoculated with 1x10(6) DLA cells i.p., and Herb + DLA groups were continued with oral herbal treatment for 21-days. Hematological parameters and tumor volume were assessed to find the effects of herbs. Short term in vitro cytotoxicity was determined by Trypan Blue exclusion method and LDH leakage assay using different concentrations of herbal
extracts and 5-FU as a positive control and IC(50) for each herbal extract and 5-FU were determined. Oral administration of crude herb increased the survival time and decreased the peritoneal ascitic fluid content significantly. Hb, RBCs and total WBC which were altered by DLA inoculation were restored significantly by all the herbs except O. sanctum. All the four herbs showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against DLA cell-line. Moreover inter group comparison of all the four herbs for anti-tumor activity showed efficacy in the following order--T. cordifolia > Z. mauritiana > or = C. longa > O. sanctum respectively.
PMID: 20161965 [PubMed]
15. Neurochem Res. 2008 Sep;33(9):1672-82. Epub 2007 Oct 23.
Curcuma oil: reduces early accumulation of oxidative product and is anti-apoptogenic in transient focal ischemia in rat brain.
Rathore P, Dohare P, Varma S, Ray A, Sharma U, Jagannathan NR, Ray M.
Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute, P.O. Box no 173, Chattar Manzil Palace, Lucknow, UP, 226001, India.
Neurochem Res. 2008 Nov;33(11):2376.. Jaganathanan, N R [corrected to Jagannathan
Turmeric is a source of numerous aromatic compounds isolated from powdered rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. The constituents are present as volatile oil, the Curcuma oil (C.oil), semi-solid oleoresins and non-volatile compounds such as curcumin. A rapidly expanding body of data provides evidence of the anti-cancer action of Curcumin, and most importantly in the present context, its neuroprotective activity. Almost nothing is known about such activity of C.oil. We report that C.oil (500 mg Kg(-1) i.p.) 15 min before 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 24 h reflow in rats significantly diminished infarct volume, improved neurological deficit and counteracted oxidative stress. The percent ischemic lesion volume on diffusion-weighted imaging was significantly attenuated. Mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite levels, caspase-3 activities leading to delayed neuronal death were significantly inhibited after treatment with C.oil. These results suggest that the neuroprotective activity of C.oil against cerebral ischemia is associated with its antioxidant activities and further; there is attenuation of delayed neuronal death via a caspase-dependent pathway. C.oil appears to be a promising agent not only for the treatment of cerebral stroke, but also for the treatment of other disorders associated with oxidative stress.
PMID: 17955367 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
16. Cell. 2007 Sep 7;130(5):765-8.
From exotic spice to modern drug?
The global demand for more affordable therapeutics and concerns about side effects of commonly used drugs are refocusing interest on Eastern traditional
medicines, particularly those of India and China.
PMID: 17803897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
17. Acta Pol Pharm. 2007 Jan-Feb;64(1):53-61.
Antihyperglycaemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel', an ayurvedic herbal formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.
Umamaheswari S, Mainzen Prince PS.
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India-608 002.
'Ilogen-Excel', an Ayurvedic herbal formulation is composed of eight medicinal plants (Curcuma longa, Strychnos potatorum, Salacia oblonga, Tinospora
cordifolia, Vetivelia zizanioides, Coscinium fenestratum, Andrographis paniculata and Mimosa pudica). The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel' in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body weight). Oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel' (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) for 60 days resulted in significantly lowered levels of blood glucose and significantly increased levels of plasma insulin, hepatic glycogen and total hemoglobin. 'Ilogen-Excel' administration also decreased the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and vitamin E in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel'. Administration of insulin normalized all the biochemical parameters studied in diabetic rats. The effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg was more pronounced than 50 mg/kg and brought back all the parameters to near normal levels. Thus, our study shows the antihyperglycemic effects of 'Ilogen-Excel' in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our study also shows that combined therapy is better than individual therapy.
PMID: 17665851 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
18. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:301-20.
Radioprotection and radiosensitization by curcumin.
Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. email@example.com
This chapter gives an overview of the radioprotective and radiosensitizing effect of curcumin. Ionizing radiations interact with biological molecules inducing
radiolytic products like e(aq), *OH, *H, -OH, +H, O2, and peroxides. These free radicals damage important biomolecules and subsequently inflict deleterious effects in the organism. Whole-body exposure to ionizing radiations results in central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and bone marrow syndromes, whereas chronic irradiation causes cancer, birth anomalies, erythema, and dysfunctions to almost all organ of the body depending on the total dose and site of irradiation. Curcumin (diferuloyl methane), a yellow pigment present in the rhizomes of turmeric, has been used in Southeast Asia to give yellow color and flavor to curries. Turmeric has been used to treat various ailments in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. Recently, it has been evaluated for its radioprotective and radiosensitizing activities. Curcumin has been found to exert a dual mode of action after irradiation depending on its dose. It has been reported to protect various study systems against the deleterious effects induced by ionizing radiation and to enhance the effect of radiation. Therefore, curcumin can be very useful during radiotherapy of cancer. Administration of curcumin in patients will be able to kill the tumor cells effectively by enhancing the effect of radiation and, at the same time, protect normal cells against the harmful effects of radiation. The available information on curcumin suggests that the radioprotective effect might be mainly due to its ability to reduce oxidative stress and inhibit transcription of genes related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas the radiosensitive activity might be due the upregulation of genes responsible for cell death.
PMID: 17569217 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
19. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:1-75.
Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.
Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Malani N, Ichikawa H.
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a
HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life".
PMID: 17569205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
20. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(3-4):117-24.
Preliminary mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia.
Arulmozhi DK, Sridhar N, Veeranjaneyulu A, Arora SK.
Lupin Research Park, Village Nande, Taluk Mulshi, Pune, 411 042, Maharashtra,India.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Curcuma caesia (family Zingiberaceae) is widely used in India as both an anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic in Ayurvedic medicine. However, there are no published pharmacological data on Curcuma caesia on its potential anti-asthmatic activity. Hence, the objective of the present investigation is to study the mechanisms by which the hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia relaxes the smooth muscle in the bronchioles and vasculature of the respiratory tract.
METHODS: The hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia (CC extract) was tested for its per se relaxant effect in guinea pig trachea and also in the presence of various receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors namely propranalol, 2', 5'-dideoxyadenosine, methylene blue, glibenclamide, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and alpha-chymotrypsin. Furthermore, the possible role of hydroalcoholic extract in calcium channel modulation was investigated in depolarized rabbit aorta.
RESULTS: The CC extract concentration dependently relaxed the carbachol (1 microM)-induced pre-contractions; the IC50 value was found to be 239.36 microg/ml and the incubation of either receptor antagonists or enzyme inhibitors did not exhibit any effect on the relaxation. In the isotonic Ca2+-free high-K+ (60 mM) depolarized aorta, CC extract (30 microg/ml) inhibited concentration-response curves of cumulative Ca2+ (0.1-30 mM) and the PD'2 value was found to be 4.11 microg/ml.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: The extract showed a dose-dependent, non-specific relaxation of pre-contracted isolated guinea pig trachea. The non-specific relaxant effect of the extract may be due to its ability to modulate calcium activity.
PMID: 17317653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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